Summary of the OnScale Flextensional Transmitter Simulation

The simulation analyzes the design of a Class IV Flextensional transmitter using titanium caps to maximize surface displacement.

The most popular deployments of flextensional transducers include low ultrasonic frequencies applications from sonar to surgical actuation. Flextensional devices are compact and achieve high vibration amplitudes for a relatively low piezoceramic volume making them ideal for sonar applications. OnScale’s electromechanical solver is well suited for such transducers; coupled with the large deformation mode allows the geometric non-linearity in such a device to be simulated.

Technical details of the OnScale simulation

The PZT bar consists of the following dimensions: 40mm x 5mm x 12mm with additional titanium caps using shell elements. We water loaded the top of the device with absorbing boundaries applied to the outer edges with the bottom cap of the transducer fixed.

We calculated Acoustic metrics such as TVR/OCV and beam patterns using Kirchhoff extrapolation to eliminate the need to simulate the full body of water. And, we used a structured skewed grid to create smooth surfaces on the titanium caps.

Computational Resources required for the OnScale simulation

We developed the model running in double precision, using:

  • Elements: 127,000 skewed elements
  • Processor: 2 x 8 core Intel Xeon E5 Workstation
  • RAM: 123 MB
  • Time required: 1 minute 53  seconds

The simulation produces a number of useful outputs, including:

  • Electrical Impedance and Conductance
  • Transmit and Receive Sensitivities
  • Directivity Plots
  • Mode Shapes

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